Perbezaan di antara Kajian Tindakan dengan Eksperimental


Januari 3, 2012 oleh ustazkenali

1. Apakah perbezaan di antara kajian tindakan dan eksperimen?

i. Tiada ‘pre- dan posttest’ di dalam kajian tindakan.

ii. Tiada kumpulan eksperimen dan kumpulan kontrol di dalam kajian tindakan.

iii. Kajian tindakan melibatkan kitaran yang terdiri daripada 4 fasa iaitu rancang, tindak, observasi dan refleksi.

2. Apakah persoalan kajian tindakan anda?

i. Apakah yang boleh dilakukan oleh pihak guru terhadap murid yang kurang berminat dengan bahagian Sirah Pendidikan Islam?

ii. Bagaimanakah kaedah yang dicadangkan boleh membantu pelajar untuk lebih memahami bahagian Sirah?

Posted by Norhidayah Arpi at 1:11 AM 0 comments

TUESDAY, MAY 26, 2009

Journal Analysis

Comparison of Action Research Procedures in These Three Journals:

1. ICT and Community of Practice
2. Human Rights, Identities and Conflict Management: A Study of School Culture Experienced Through Classroom Relationships
3. Action Research in The Classroom


ICT and Community of Practice
The project has been done in lower secondary schools, Norway to identify ICT as an integrated artifact. Data collections were gained through questionnaires, observations, and interview with the principals, teachers, and students. In addition, to analyse the isssue, document studies and field notes were used. The study involved action research approach and the case study method which are qualitative assessments. Internal validity of the study was strengthen using three broad categories; paper and pen techniques, live techniques and ostensive techniques. The study was undertaken to evaluate changes in the schools and innovations arised from ICT. The researcher and her colleagues involved in the developmental process, as a participants and observer as well. Case studies were applied to support mechanisms and process. Empirical analysis to supplement data analysis. Cycle 1 set flexible working periods, study periods, different learning resources etc. In Cycle 2, students were invited to become a part of solving hypothethical problems. Empirical analysis led to several innovations in ICT. For instance, teacher is becoming more of a navigator in integrated knowledge and participant in the co-construction of knowledge together with the student.

Human Rights, Identities and Conflict Management: A Study of School Culture as Experienced Through Classroom Relationships

The project was conducted in an all boys’ comprehensive school in the English West Midlands. The main purpose of this project, as stated above, is to examine the dynamics of classroom relationships and perceptions of how rights and identities operate. In addition, this project was done in order to understand and challenge aspects of the school culture, such as conflict. Conflict was arised from teachers, school staffs and students. Whereelse, the researchers also emphasized boys’ apparent achievement in school, low in motivation, academic performance and others. Cycle 1 set data collection on boys’ behaviour and identities by means of observation, journal entries as well as questionnaire to 120 boys aged 13-14 years old. The continuation of the study determined how students in a boy’s secondary schools constructed their identities and devised a program of intervention centred on human rights. Activity such as games attracted students to participate actively in the project. At the end of the project, students and teachers got advantages to better understand human right education and recover some misconceptions of human rights. Therefore, researchers suggested a progressive adoption of democratic method to encourage an active involvement.

Action Research in The Classroom: Assisting a Linguistically Different Learner With Special Needs

The project was done to boost English achievement among students with learning disabilities (i.e special education). 14 students from third and fourth grade participated in this study. To be specific, these classrooms are located in a suburban school which good facilities. The study was focus more to Andy whose native land is Korea. He had a great difficulty to understand English in term of phonetic, comprehension, and writing skills. Data were obtain through interview with the English teacher, Andy’s parent and himself. The researcher also make a review on the cultural. language, personality, need for silence, avoiding immediate correction and ESL standards. Researcher used group instruction to the whole class and individual instruction to Andy. Activities such as reading text, writing, specific instuctional strategies, Total Physical Response etc were selected to improve teaching and learning process. Whole class and Andy himself improved after the implementation of the strategy. The researcher documented the progress and made anecdotal record.

Posted by Norhidayah Arpi at 12:49 AM 0 comments




Guru meneliti, menyelidik dan mengkaji secara sistematik ke atas suatu praktis yang bertujuan untuk menambahbaik praktis tersebut.

Kajian tinjauan ialah mencari input awal sebelum membuat intervensi.

Semua fasa di dalam kitaran kajian tindakan melibatkan kajian ke perpustakaan, iaitu sorotan ke atas bahan-bahan literatur seperti buku, artikel, jurnal dan sebagainya.

Istilah-istilah yang digunakan:
1. Membanding dan membezakan.
2. Menganalisis- aspek-aspek dilihat berasingan dan bagaimana setiap aspek tersebut mempunyai hubung kait.
3.Menilai- kriteria digunakan untuk menilai dan mengadili sesuatu.
4. Membuat kesimpulan.

Posted by Norhidayah Arpi at 7:43 PM 1 comments


Ulasan Buku


Nama pengarang: Donna Kalmbach Phillips and Kevin Carr

Tahun terbitan: 2006

Tajuk buku: Becoming a Teacher through Action Research

Negeri penerbit: New York

Nama penerbit: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group


There are six chapters in this book, which are:
1. Becoming A Student Teacher/Action Researcher
2. Discovering An Area Of Focus
3. Action Research Design and Methodology
4. Data Analysis and Interpretation
5. Telling The Story Of Your Action Research
6. Living Action Research As A Professional Educator

In general, this book supports three critical areas of process, context and self study of an action research by a teacher. In addition, it provides some general guidelines to do an action research project in school.

Action research is a kind of research that is in category of its own but can be defined and interpreted in many ways. However, this book has defined action research as a form of research that is practitioner based. In other words, it is done by teachers in their own classrooms with the goal of improving simultaneously pedagogy and student learning. Action research can be done to connect the gap between school and the world outside school. As a novel teacher, I believe that this book provides useful guidelines especially techniques and tools of an action research to be used in the classroom.

At initial stage, we may have an idea that action research is an overlapping area of action + research. Meanwhile, the idea can be expanded that action research is done by a teacher to seek a solution or to improve teaching and learning process. A teacher can try different methods as well as documenting it in a proper paperwork.


Action research is important to a teacher because:

i· teacher will be able to daily recognize areas of classroom that need improvement and discover methods that will help make a needed change.
ii· to identify, plan, and observe the effectiveness of an action.
iii· involves a systematic or organized approach to problem-solving.
iv· requires active engagement and interaction between groups of people.
v· insists upon reflection, critical analysis, and revolving assessment.
vi· analyzes systems of power, deconstructs taken-for-granted assumptions.


Data are important features while conducting an action research project. Data are:
i· evidence of hunches
ii· the confirmation of theory
iii· the source of paradigm shifts
Data for qualitative inquiry can be obtained through:
i· observations
ii· interviews
iii· artifacts/documents
Once an action researcher completed data collection, action research can be designed by answering these questions:
i· The area of focus for my action research project is…
ii· Participants in my action research project include…

iii. My critical question now reads…

Example of an Action Research Design

I. Action Research Project Overview
i· Critical Question
ii· Setting of the Action Research Project
iii· The Story Behind This Action Research Project
iv· Synopsis of Problem
v· Synopsis of Strategy
vi· Timeline
vii· Common Theme from Literature Review
viii· Reference List
II. Methodology: How the Problem will Be Addressed
i· Data and Documents to Be Collected
ii· Teacher/Researcher Notebook
iii· Professional and Critical Colleagues and Students
iv· Data and Document Analysis
v· How This Design Deliberately Plans for Trustworthiness
vi· How I Am Gaining Appropriate Permissions
vii· Possible Interruptions, Distractions and Difficulties
III. Conclusions and Possibilities
i· Presentation of Data

ii. What Actions I Expect/Hope to be The Result of My Action Research Project.

Norhidayah Arpi


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