Mei 22, 2012 oleh ustazkenali
Summary: Chapter 1
The Scientific Method
1. The goal of all scientific endeavors is to explain, predict, and or control phenomena.
2. Compared to other sources of knowledge, such as experience, authority, inductive reasoning, application of the scientific method is undoubtedly the most efficient and reliable.
3. Basically, the scientific method involves induction of hypotheses based on observations, deduction of implications, and confirmation or disconfirmation of the hypotheses.
Application of The Scientific Method in Educational
4. Research is the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to study of problems, educational research is formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of educational problems.
5. The major difference between educational research and other scientific research is the nature of phenomena studied. Is is considerably more difficulty to explain, predict, and control situations involving human beings, by far the most complex of all organisms.
Basic Versus Applied Research
6. Classification of a given study along this continuum is based primarily on the on the degree to which findings have direct educational applications and the degree to which they are generalizable. Both of these criteria are a function of the of the research control exercised during the execution of the study.
7. In its purest form, basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement.
8. Applied research, as the name implies, is conducted for the purpose of applying, or testing, theory and evaluating its usefulness in solving educational problems.
9. The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.