Kumbahan dan Bahan literature

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Januari 29, 2014 oleh ustazkenali

Kesan Luahan Kumbahan Domestik ke atas Sungai

dan Perairan Pantai di Malaysia

(Effect of dischage of domestic sewerage to rivers

and coastal waters of Malaysia)

Lee Yook Heng, Zuriati Zakaria, Zanal Mohd Zain, Hazimin Harun,

Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan, Suhaida Mohd Redzuan

Pusat Pengajian Sains Kimia & Teknologi Makanan

Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia

 

 

 

ABSTRAK

 

Kajian ke atas luahan kumbahan domestik ke atas sistem sungai dan perairan pantai telah dilakukan di Kajang (Sg Jeluh dan Langat) dan di Pantai Negeri Sembilan (Port Dickson dan Pantai Tanjung Biru). Parameter kajian tertumpu kepada ciri-ciri utama kumbahan domestik seperti kandungan organik (permintaan oksigen biokimia, BOD dan paras nutrien (fosfat terlarut (PO4) dan nitrat (NO)). Perlepasan kumbahan domestik daripada kolam pengoksidaan di sekitar bandar Kajang telah menyebabkan paras BOD dan PO4 yang tinggi iaitu 1.9-5.1 dan 0.15-2.03 mg/L masing-masing. Peningkatan BOD berkorelasi (r=0.77) dengan penurunan paras oksigen terlarut (DO) dalam air sungai. Pada keseluruhannya kesan kumbahan domestik ke atas Sg. Jeluh dan Langat adalah lebih ketara berbanding dengan yang dialami oleh air marin di persisiran pantai.

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

An investigation of the effect of discharge of domestic sewage to rivers at Kajang (Jeluh and Langat River) and coastal waters at Negeri Sembilan (Port Dickson and Blue Lagoon) was carried out. The parameters studied focused on the characteristics of sewage such as organic content (biochemi­cal oxygen demand, BOD and nutrients (dissolved phosphate, (PO4) and nitrate (NO)). The discharge of domestic sewage from oxidation ponds near Kajang has resulted in high levels of BOD and PO4 in river water, i.e. 1.9-5.1 and 0.15-2.03 mg/L respectively. The increase in BOD is correlated (r =0.77) with the decrease in the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the river water. In general. the effects of domestic sewage discharge on water quality is more obvious in the Jeluh and Langat rivers at Kajang when compared to the effect on marine water.

 

 

RUJUKAN/REFERENCES

 

AI-Muzaini, S., Beg, M., Muslamani, K. & AI-Mutairi, M. 1999. The Quality of Marine Water Around Sewage Outfall. Water Science and Technology, 40, 11-15..

APHA, 1992. Standard Methods of Water and Wastewater Analysis. USA. Clark, R.B. 1986. Marine Pollution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Corcoran, E.F., Brown, M.S., Snedaker, S.C. & Rosenstiel, S. 1988. Water quality characteristics of a southeast Florida sewage treatment and bioeffects laboratory. Mar. Atmos. Sci. 51, 49-55.

Fiah. M. J. 1986. Kajian sistem pembuangan najis dan air buangan domestik di bandar Kajang. Latihan Ilmiah, Fakulti Sains Alam Sekitar, UPM. 1986.

Hach, 2000. Handbook of Water Analysis, USA.

Lee Y. H, Chai S. Y, Ahmad Z. A., Mohamad H. M. R. & Pauzi M. A. 2002. The effects of sewage discharge from treatment plants to the Langat River at Kajang, Selangor. Prosiding Simposium Penyelidikan Lembangan Langat 2001, Mazlin M., Shaharudin I., Fariz, A. M., Hadi H. S., Sarah A.G.A. (Eds), Lestari, UKM, 269-282.

Mara, D. 1994. Rawatan Kumbahan Dalam lklim Panas, Penerbit UTM.

Mishra, B.P. & Tripathi, B.D. 2000. Sewage quality analysis: Pollutants removal efficiency of a sewage treatment plant. J. Industrial Pollution Control, 16, 239-­251.

Muhammad, A. Y., Nordin, M. H. & Pauzi M. A. 1999. River water quality assessment and ecosystem health: Langat River Basin, Selangor. Prosiding Simposium Penyelidikan Ekosistem Lembangan Langat Pertama (SPELL).

Nordin, M. H, Pauzi, M. A. & Muhammad A. Y. 1999. Water quality and data management: Eutrophication of the rivers of Langat River Basin, Selangor. Proceeding to Seminar on Integrated Drainage Basin Management and Model­ling. UKM.

Oladimeji, A.A. & Wade, I.W. 1984. Effects of effluents from a sewage treatment plant on the aquatic organisms. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 23, 309-316.

Scanes, P.R. & Philip, N. 1995. Environment impact of deepwater discharge of sewage off Sydney, NSW. Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 343-6.

UNITI, 2000. Macro Environment Impact Assessment Study for Coastal Land Reclamation off the Coast of Negeri Sembilan, Darul Khusus. Laporan Perundingan Akhir, Jilid I, Bab 3.

Zuriati, Z., Lee, Y.H. & Rakmi A. R. 2002. The coastal water quality of Port Dickson (Negeri Sembilan) and its contamination by sewage. Mat, Z., Ishak, A., Anita, R., Sri Nurestri, A. M., Khan, M.A., Zuriati, Z. (Eds) Prosiding Seminar Kimia Bersama UKM-ITB Ke-5, UKM, 475-480.

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